The Book of Isaiah, comprising 66 chapters, is one of the most profound theological and literarily expressive works in the Bible. Compiled over a period of about two centuries (the latter half of the 8th to the latter half of the 6th century bce),â€¦
The earliest recorded event in his life is his call to prophecy as now found in the sixth chapter of the Book of Isaiah; this occurred about 742 bce. The vision (probably in the Jerusalem Temple) that made him a prophet is described in a first-person narrative. According to this account he â€œsawâ€� God and was overwhelmed by his contact with the divine glory and holiness. He became agonizingly aware of Godâ€™s need for a messenger to the people of Israel, and, despite his own sense of inadequacy, he offered himself for Godâ€™s service: â€œHere am I! Send me.â€� He was thus commissioned to give voice to the divine word. It was no light undertaking; he was to condemn his own people and watch the nation crumble and perish. As he tells it, he was only too aware that, coming with such a message, he would experience bitter opposition, willful disbelief, and ridicule, to withstand which he would have to be inwardly fortified. All this came to him in the form of a vision and ended as a sudden, firm, and lifelong resolve.
Presumably, Isaiah was already prepared to find meaning in the vision before the arrival of that decisive moment. Information about that period of his life is inconclusive, however, and consists mainly of inferences drawn from the biblical text.
At times the prophetâ€™s private life shows through the record as an aspect of his public message. Once when he went to confront a king, he took with him, to reenforce his prophetic word, a son with the symbolic name Shear-yashuv (â€œA Remnant Shall Returnâ€�). Again, to memorialize a message, he sired a son on the â€œprophetessâ€� (his wife) and saddled the child with his message as a name: Maher-shalal-hash-baz (â€œSpeed-spoil-hasten-plunderâ€�), referring to the imminent spoliations by the Assyrians. If the sons had not been wanted as walking witnesses to the prophetâ€™s forebodings, posterity would not know of this wife or these sons.
Of Isaiahâ€™s parental home it is known only that his fatherâ€™s name was Amoz. Since he often spoke with kings, it is sometimes suggested that Isaiah was an aristocrat, possibly even of royal stock. The same reasoning, however, might apply to any number of prophets; from Nathan in Davidâ€™s time onward, prophets had dealings with kings and were, like Isaiah, well informed about public affairs. Moreover, Isaiahâ€™s sympathies were emphatically with the victimized poor, not with the courtiers and well-to-do. Also, it is sometimes argued that he was of a priestly family, but his knowledge of cultic matters and the fact that his commissioning seemingly occurred in the Temple in Jerusalem are slender evidence for his priestly descent as against his unreserved condemnation of the priests and their domain: â€œI am fed up with roasting rams and the grease of fattened beasts,â€� he has God proclaim in a famous passage in the first chapter.
One could argue with equal force that Isaiah is descended from a family of prophets (though his father, the otherwise unknown Amoz, is not to be confused with the prophet Amos). He is thoroughly schooled in the traditional forms and language of prophetic speech. It is an educated speechâ€”strong, vivid, the finest of classical Hebrew. Isaiah is particularly well acquainted with the prophetic tradition known to his slightly older contemporary, Amos. Four eminent Hebrew prophets addressed themselves to the people of Israel and Judah in the latter half of the 8th pre-Christian century: Amos, Hosea, Micah, and Isaiah. Strangely, no evidence suggests that any of these knew in person any of the others. Seemingly, they were apart and alone, yet Isaiah and Amos follow essentially the same lines of thought and differ significantly only in that Amos had addressed the northern kingdom (Israel) while Isaiah would emphatically include Judah and Jerusalem. The basic similarities in style and substance strongly suggest influence, direct or indirect, of the one on the otherâ€”and both invoke a recognizable Israelite tradition.
It is in his theology that Isaiah leans most heavily on Israelite tradition and shows an acquaintance with the thoughts of Amos. Isaiah shared with him and with the people the long-standing tradition that a special bond united Israel and its God. Since patriarchal times there had been an agreement, a solemn â€œCovenantâ€� between them: Israel was to be Godâ€™s people and he their God. He had chosen them and cared for them. His solicitude for their welfare had been clearly established. Such was the traditional message. Isaiah knew and honoured this ancient tradition, but, more significantly, he also shared the conviction of Amos that this arrangement was wholly conditional, contingent on the peopleâ€™s conduct. Behaviour such as Amos saw about him in Samaria and Isaiah saw about him in Jerusalem could cancel that Covenantâ€”had in fact done so; that is the meaning of the vineyard parable in the fifth chapter of Isaiah. There God is compared to the careful and industrious cultivator of a vineyardâ€”Israelâ€”who, angry at the â€œwild grapesâ€� of injustice and violence that is his crop, threatens to take away his care and protection.
As Isaiah knew him, Israelâ€™s God did not fit into the picture of utter injustice and consequent misery rampant in 8th-century Israel. To that peopleâ€™s God, as Isaiah knew him, persons mattered. God was, in fact, more concerned about people than about how his subjects performed for him their oft-rehearsed rituals. A literal interpretation of the 13th verse of chapter 29 and verses 10 to 15 of chapter 1 would suggest that God finds the motions of worship repugnant, and this may well have been Isaiahâ€™s meaning. He was overawed by the holinessâ€”the othernessâ€”of his God and must have thought that the customary gifts of meat, grain, and flattery were unseemly or, at the least, irrelevant. Although, like Amos, Isaiah appears most often to speak in absolutes, it is indeed possible to interpret these two passages less strictly (as some scholars do) and to say that he spoke in relative terms and that, in his scale of religious values, he merely ranked moral conduct above ritual conformity.
Isaiahâ€™s theology included the sometimes comforting view that God shapes history, traditionally entering the human scene to rescue his people from national peril. But, according to Isaiahâ€™s discomfiting surmise, God could intervene quite as properly to chastise his own aberrant nation, and he could employ a human agent (e.g., a conquering foe) to that end.
If, then, Isaiah was prepared by schooling in tradition and life for the vision that set him on his prophetic course, the preparation involved the mingling in his nature of such elements as those sketched above. In the year that King Uzziah died (742 bce), according to chapter 6, Isaiah was one of a crowd gathered for an occasion at the Jerusalem Temple when of a sudden it occurredâ€”and he became a prophet: â€œGo, and say to this peopleâ€¦.â€� The experiences that had gone into the shaping of his young lifeâ€”his acquaintance with the arrogant rich and the suffering poor; his seeming knowledge of Amos and his heritage of tradition, ethnic and religious; his dismay at the threat of Assyria; above all, perhaps, a new and overwhelming sense of the majestic holiness of Godâ€”all merged, coalesced, and he knew that his God was sending him with words for his people and that, reluctant or not, he was compelled to go. From the start or retrospectively, he was aware of a frantic needâ€”impossible to satisfyâ€”to call his people back from the brink of peril. His vision was his moment of insight and resolve when, with complete clarity and instantaneously, he knew what he must do and say.
If chapter 6 marks the beginning of his career as prophet, the judgment oracle about the conquest of Jerusalem in chapter 22 probably brings his grim story to a close. It is at any rate the latest Isaianic product that can be dated with any degree of certainty. The last recorded words of Isaiah, in chapter 22, do nothing to relieve the sombre tone of his message, but they do shed further light on his mood and personality. After he had exclaimed in the vision in chapter 6, â€œHow long, O Lord?â€� he learned to his dismay that even a last remaining 10th of the populace must in turn succumb; just so here the oracle ends with assurance of total disaster: the nationâ€™s guilt can be purged by nothing short of deathâ€”â€œSurely this iniquity will not be forgiven you until you dieâ€¦.â€� Chapters 6 and 22 set the tone of his message and the hue of his mood, and from the first to the last the gloom has not lifted.
This 22nd chapter contains the most personally revealing of all Isaiahâ€™s words. Quite unexpectedly, the Assyrians have lifted the siege and departed, and the amazed defenders of Jerusalem, flushed and jubilant, give way to celebration; Isaiah cannot share the holiday spirit since for him there has been only a postponement. Nothing has changed, and in his â€œvalley of visionâ€� he sees the day of rout and confusion that God yet has in store for Zion. And so it is that he lays bare his private grief:
Look away from me, let me weep bitter tears; do not try to comfort me for the destruction of my beloved people.
Message to Israel
The historical allusions in the scattered chapters of Isaiahâ€™s work agree with the title verse, according to which he was a contemporary of the Judaean kings Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah. His prophetic call is precisely dated by him â€œin the year that King Uzziah died.â€� At least a part of chapter 7 refers to the event of the year 734 when Ephraim and Syria jointly threatened King Ahaz of Judah. In 732 Tiglath-pileser conquered Damascus, the fall of which Isaiah had anticipated. In 722 Samaria, the capital of Ephraim, fell to King Sargon of Assyria, which event Isaiah had also foreseen. By the end of the century (701) Sennacherib had laid siege to Jerusalemâ€”and had subsequently withdrawn. Chapters 1:4â€“8; 10:27â€“34; 28:14â€“22; 30:1â€“7; and 31:1â€“4 point to those difficult days when Jerusalem was beleaguered and King Hezekiah feverishly sought help from Egypt. Isaiah brought sparse comfort to his kingsâ€”even when the siege was lifted, as noted in the passage cited from chapter 22.
His impossible program comes through in the crisis of 701, during which he stands in violent opposition to the generals ready to go to Egypt for help against the Assyrians laying siege to Zion. Isaiah looked neither to allies nor to armaments for security. If it is God who decides the destiny of nations, security is for God to grant and for men to deserve. Isaiah held the daring view that the best defense is no defenseâ€”none other than the reconciling response to the moral demand. No men are secure when some are denied security. â€œThis,â€� he said, â€œis rest [i.e., security]: give rest to the weary.â€�
A case can be made for a theory that Isaiah drew back at the brink, incapable of conceiving a world wholly emptied of his people. What supports this view is a paradox: the observation that, irrationally, he entrusted his rejected message to his disciples and preserved it in a book for the instruction of the survivors of a people doomed to leave no survivors.
There is no consensus as concerns the precise limits of the words of the 8th-century Isaiah or the degree of consistency with which he sustained his tragic monotone. Certainly in his book as it has come down, his nature is elusiveâ€”both stern and tender. Magnificently hopeful passages constantly mingle with the prevailing atmosphere of doom. Probably his sonâ€™s name, Shear-yashuv, means something like â€œa mere fragment will survive,â€� but possibly it has a hopeful ring: no total disasterâ€”some shall survive. Possibly the name Immanuel (God Is with Us), prophesied for the child who shall be a sign from God that Judah will not be overcome by Israel and Syria, expresses the confidence that God will never forsake his people. And possibly other such assurances are in fact words of Isaiah himself, compelled by his love to palliate the blow.
But there is an alternative solution. Although Isaiah was far from popular in his day, he does appear to have attracted some followers: â€œSeal the teaching among my disciples.â€� These may have been the circle that kept alive his name and his wordsâ€”in writing or learned â€œby heartâ€�â€”the nucleus of what was to become, through a developing tradition, the biblical Book of Isaiah. And quite possibly successive generations of such Isaiah-men, piously keeping his words alive through radically changing times, added the sustaining messages of hope, well designed to seize the fancy of suffering humanity down the centuries.
Later interpretations of Isaiahâ€™s message
Ironically, perhaps, the Book of Isaiah is most widely known and loved just for those comforting wordsâ€”which may not be his. A passage in the Babylonian Talmud (one of the two Talmud compilations, the other being Palestinian) can say that from beginning to end the book is consolation. The presence of Isaiah scrolls in the archives of the QumrÄ�n (Dead Sea) community is not surprising. By that time (c. 1st century bce) it had become the fashion to assume that prophets spoke not to their times only but of things to come, and in times of stress men studied prophetic texts intent on learning when redemption was to come.
The Greek translation of Isaiah by Jewish scholars (the Septuagint), accomplished before the Christian Era, reflects a developing tradition of interpretation; it renders the Hebrew Ê¿alma (â€œyoung womanâ€�) as parthenos (â€œvirginâ€�) in the verse (7:14) about Immanuel, thus drawing Isaiah further into the messianic ring. Now it is a virgin who â€œshall conceive and bear a son.â€� The promise of a more than ordinary king, a â€œmessiah,â€� was enticing. According to the New Testament accounts, when Jesus entered a synagogue in Nazareth and got up to read, they handed him a scroll of Isaiah. He read the beginning of chapter 61, â€œThe Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because the Lord has anointed meâ€¦,â€� and he said, â€œToday this scripture has been fulfilled.â€�
The Gospels lean more heavily on the Book of Isaiah than on any other prophetic text. Beyond any denominational differences is the utopian dream, the â€œswords-into-plowsharesâ€� passage in Isaiah 2. These and many gleaming words from the expanded Book of Isaiah live on in the present day and todayâ€™s culture. The word â€œpropheticâ€� has now become a value-term, closely associated with the primacy of the moral demand and the bearing of justice on the stability of nations, quite in accord with the emphasis of the early Isaiah.