Over the last few weeks I have been contacted by several worried individuals  who are  supporters of the Welsh National Movement.  Strangely one of those concerned individuals pointed out a link which has now vanished.  It was the Twitter account of one Paul Fear, the Alt Right sympathiser who was involved in the twitter account of Yes Cymru in Newport. He stated recently he was not going to post on Twitter anymore because it doesn’t allow ‘free speech’ and that he was going to open account on the far right platform Gabai.  I have worked out that he seems to have been involved in the Newport Yes Cymru twitter because – while it’s a very inactive page that they have shared some of his tweets and worryingly they refer to him as a ‘local supporter’. 
Anyway all you get now when you go to this twitter is this https://twitter.com/worktop64 and a message saying this page doesn’t exist so obviously his backing for the Alt Right and Islamophobia and Prince Tommy Robinson and oddly  are notvisible any longer.  This doesn’t change the fact that Yes Cymru supporters in Newport were being hopelessly naive – and irresponsible even – by allowing a rabid Far right neo Fascist sympathizer into their ranks.
This clearly has echoes of the Port Talbot Facebook Yes Cymru page and twitter.  The  Yes Cymru accounts and my strong suspicions  suggest that are that they may be being managed by a notorious former Welsh EDL supporter.  My suspicions are that whoever it was  that it was clearly not straight forward. Oddly in June the admin of the page posted that they had to ‘go away’ and since then twitter and fb have been inactive. However since then a new name has appeared on this page and the following image may suggest a unique association with an indual who described himself with the colourful phrase `once a skinhead always a skinhead`

Recently it was revealed by a gleeful Jac o` the North on his blog that four left leaning people had been voted off the Yes Cymru’s national committee.  I notice too that Yes Cymru twitter accounts across Wales are always posting information from Neil McEvoy that doyen of feminism and user of an Alt Right jargon.  Interestingly they are often critical of Leanne Wood, and this seems rather odd given that she is the Leader of a party which campaigns for Independence for Wales.  Of course she also happens to be a left wing feminist and socialist, which is a capital offence to the likes of that old broflake Jac of the Deep South who promotes a Steve Bannon video upon the banner of his blog.  His latest rave on Cultural Marxism and he put its clear shows that he dreams of a Welsh right wing state through  the discourse of a Welsh speaking UKIP lite hybrid.
  As I am someone who has always strongly supported Welsh devolution and Independence and I would always welcome non-party campaigns for Welsh Independence.  However, I am very concerned that individuals with Far Right connections are trying to infiltrate Yes Cymru and gain a foothold in the Welsh national movement, in fact the piece in Nation Cymru a few Fridays ago about the far right echoes this justifiable fear 

 There are clear signs of a possible right turn by Yes Cymru that may be found in the purge of left wingers from its national committee.  It also looks like there is a concerted effort going on by supporters of Jac’s new party – Ein Gwlad – to seize control of Yes Cymru.  Ein Gwlad’s political leanings are obvious in the policy document that I have recently seen. Jac’s open support for Victor Orban and Steve Bannon.  While the Welsh Alt rights James Marshall Henton-Llewellyn is one of the three signatories to Ein Gwlad’s constitution document. I have also been told that Neil McEvoy is working closely with people in Yes Cymru and Ein Gwlad to undermine and denigrate Leanne Wood on social media.
It’s clear what is going on here – there’s a concerted attempt by people with Alt Right and Far Right leanings to shift politics in Wales to the political right.  And while Rhun Ap Iorwerth and Adam Price are not Right wing they are making approving noises about being willing to work with the Tories and are copying the populism of the mode of Donald Trump.  A defeat for Leanne Wood in September will mean that Plaid will shift to the right. It’s quite ironic as the Welsh Labour party shifts to the left with its likely vote for OMOV.( One member one vote)
It is indeed disturbing that my contacts have pointed out the increasingly lynch mob tactics of certain Yes Cymru members amongst whom was a former Plaid Cymru Council candidate in Swansea. I have increasingly seen naive questions on Yes Cymru sites from people about the support of a branch of the Welsh Identitarians for Welsh independence.  I wonder how aware they are of the flirtations of Breton nationalists in the 1930s with the Nazi party of Germany.
Wales has a long history of progressive Socialism. It is the birth place of the NHS, of devolution and of the welfare state. I fear that some very foolish naive people would be content with an independent Welsh right ring state.  These young fools aided by bitter old broflakes of the North risk the creation of a deadly alchemy that will toxify the quest for an independent Republican Ecosocialist Welsh state.I found these observations from Nicolas Glais on social media most interesting and a valuable complement to my observations `

 ` Martyn I have noticed similar developments to you and some others which we will publicize at time to create maximum damage – the cultural Marxism stuff is not new and it was on Sovereign Cymru years ago – sometimes these people do not know what they a…

I feel a sense of unease I hear so many males claiming support for an Independent Wales use the jargon of the Alt Right.  I see amongst others Neil McEvoy uses the term “virtue signallingâ€�, “SJWâ€� and now “Manplan.â€�  These are vile words they have nothing to do with the proud Celtic tradition of respect between men and women, for the understanding of the rich tapestry of sexuality that humans experience.  When I see an Assembly Member use these terms I feel sick.  Because I know what attitudes.  Psychology and misogyny that is within those who use these words.  I have seen the abuse from trolls in this Plaid leadership election and it damages the reputation of Cymru.  For those who don’t know these terms I will explain……Jac`s blog recently raved  likr a  Trumup fanatic of the Rust Belt  about the fusion of Cultural Marxism and Colonialism. I have never seen a worse example of mixwd metaphors, ignorance of terminology and an abject ignorance of mutually incompatibe tems and approaches. 

Alt Right speech  terms o`the North


Woman: Do you need me to show you how to cook the food before I leave?
Fred: I see George has changed his profile picture to show his support for refugees.

Barbara: Has he donated money or time? Is he giving English lessons? Is he making a room available?
Fred: No, no, he’s just virtue signaling.

Social Justice Warrior. A pejorative term for an individual who repeatedly and vehemently engages in arguments on social justice on the Internet, often in a shallow or not well-thought-out way, for the purpose of raising their own personal reputation.  A social justice warrior, or SJW, does not necessarily strongly believe all that they say, or even care about the groups they are fighting on behalf of.  They typically repeat points from whoever is the most popular blogger or commenter of the moment, hoping that they will “get SJ points” and become popular in return.  They are very sure to adopt stances that are “correct” in their social circle.The SJW’s favorites activity of all is to dogpile.  Their favorite websites to frequent are Livejournal and Tumblr.  They do not have relevant favorite real-world places, because SJWs are primarily civil rights activists only online.

These words are all pejorative.  They do down progressive thinkers and above all they are words used by the reactionary, the conservative and of men who fear women. They are put downs and are about power and mockery.
Hayek o`the North
Jac`s new party Ein Gwlad’s lauds the economic and political philosophy of Hayek and adds to my sense of anxiety and worry. It was Margaret Thatcher whose Hayek inspired economic policy destroyed the Welsh economy and culture in the 1980s. It laid waste the communities of South Wales destroying as it came jobs and people. It`s bad enough that the young Jac has a Steve Bannon interview on the banner of his blog. It leaves no doubt exactly what and where the loyalties of the new party. It shows that is from the stable of the Alt Right and populist Right of the ilk. It comes from the birthparents of Victor Oban and the Law and Justice crypto fascist parties of Eastern Europe.

 i notice that since the publication of this article on Thursday August 23 that Cymru Nation published this hopeful and tolerant  outlook for a progressive Wales https://nation.cymru/opinion/to-win-independence-we-need-to-win-hearts-and-minds/

`We are experiencing a significant groundswell of support for an independent Wales at present. Plaid Cymru’s leadership contest has put independence front and centre. The growth of YesCymru has widened the debate away from party politics and brought thousands of normal, everyday people to the cause. We have Labour for Indy Wales striving to win hearts and minds within their party and social media stars like Neville Southall, Dai Lama and the Barry Horns have spread the word to their tens of thousands of followers. And more recently we have also seen special interest groups, such as Welsh Football Fans for Independence and Welsh Rugby Fans for Independence spring up too.
The overwhelming majority of those who currently support an independent Wales dream of an inclusive country built on the foundations of civic and cultural nationalism. A country where anyone who wants to be Welsh, who wants to contribute to their community and to the broader nation, can be Welsh, no matter where they were born, the colour of their skin, their gender or sexuality. An outward looking country that is richer, fairer, cleaner and more dynamic than that in which we currently live.
This is in stark contrast to the toxic, ugly British Nationalism that this month’s election of Gareth Bennett as leader of UKIP in Wales brought to our front pages. The xenophobic, exclusive, navel-gazing nationalism that he and his party embody is the antithesis of what we stand for.
it must be acknowledged, however, that some outside the independence movement see it as largely (or exclusively) driven by jingoistic anti-English sentiment, a view not helped by some of last week’s invective regarding plans to dump mud from Hinkley B in Welsh coastal waters.
We must be very careful not to feed this view with our words and deeds.
Our battle is against unionism, British Nationalism and the British State, imperialism and power concentrated in Westminster. It is with those who see Wales as a region of, or no different to, England. Those who through ignorance or arrogance seek to denigrate, destroy and assimilate our unique language and culture.Our battle is not against England or the English, or indeed any other nation or people. We mustn’t fall into the “Britishness as a synonym for Englishness� trap in reverse. Those who see Wales as we see it – an ancient land, an often voiceless people who are beginning to stir and demand better, a proud, inclusive, independent nation-in-waiting – are our friends, not our enemies, to be embraced, not pushed away.

YesCymru is a grassroots movement, made up of thousands of normal, everyday people who all want to see an independent, sovereign Wales, sooner rather than later. YesCymru’s devolved nature is its greatest strength, though like any such movement it can present its own challenges, in particular in presenting this positive message in a consistent manner. Language is important. In order to win independence we need to win hearts and minds. We cannot afford to alienate people with lazy rhetoric. Instead, we need to be unrelenting with our positive, inclusive and aspirational message of how life in an independent Wales will be better for all.

Thermidor in Plaid

You may remember that the plotters around Leanne Wood burst from their bonds the minute she tried to put some substance and clarity in Plaid’s schizoid position on Nuclear power.
Young Rhunactive Ap Nuclear managed to get his nomination in within 12 hours most as if long planned with supporters forewarned.  I also note with interest that one Vicky Moller devotee of Greens for Plaid and Daily Telegraph expert on the buy to let mortgage asked on the Nation Cymru…what’s wrong with Nuclear power?  Went on to argue that Nuclear power is a real renewable and Green option.  In an Independent Wales the role of standard renewables would clearly redefined as to include a new industry…one wonders if a nuclear subtext is being wielded as a dagger for Leanne on the ides of July…or some future month.  You would have to have a suspicious mind to link these two worthies and ambition…but then you might that but I couldn’t possibly comment.
It’s also very interesting to link the raves of the Broflake of the North bitter old Jac.  Jac is always moaning about ” greenies, lefties and wimmin” and laying in to Leanne Wood. I notice now to how the young narcissist the Layman is similar in his criticism.  And as that champion of women’s rights Neil McEvoy sets up an organisation called in a saintly Freudian way “Propel” has a meeting at which Mr. Niccolls former UKIP staffer is spotted alongside others with former “Welsh Skinhead” Chris Piper of the Welsh Defense League…of course none of these events have anything to do with the causation of the plot.  Perhaps correlation might be more of an effective link.
Neil’s organization “Propelâ€� or as I prefer to call it “Repel” are keen supporters of alt right terminology like “virtue signaling” and are keen accusers of domestic violence charities that have bullied and abused men.  One might speculate that in a Plaid led by Rhunactive Ap Nuclear would Neil McEvoy exile be cut in length?…you might think that but I could not possibly comment.  One must always reward supporters both direct and indirect I think that a serious attempt, if my little birds are accurate that we are seeing an attempt to move Plaid to the right I suspect that this is a serious attempt and I warn Leanne Wood that this should not be underestimated. I wonder too if successful coup would mean to  the return of a  certain member of the House of Lords to the fold.

As Welsh Labour renews and Momentum grows both Plaid and the Welsh Green Party should fear making dramatic and tactical errors.  A vibrant Eco Socialist Plaid and an Independent Welsh Green Party could form a powerful coalition with a Socialist Welsh Labour Party.  Momentum, the Welsh Greens and an Eco socialist Plaid have many points of intersection and of political shared goals of outlook and aims.
I suspect that Rhunactive would have interesting views on cooperation with the Welsh Tories.  Any way it’s nearly 30 degrees on the T6 heading towards Neath…Perhaps I hallucinate …but you will have to decide that….I measure it by how much abuse I get over social media…but hey let’s draw ourselves up and see what happens. I am going to have to tell you more next week…beers in the garden call to me…oh these political dog days…of Summer

I have always been interested in seeing what goes on behind the scenes, at the things that I deny about myself and what others deny about themselves.  Over the last 50 years or so it has led me to some interesting places, people and ideas. A friend of mine bought me a copy of the Pencourt File, it’s a study of the Intelligence Services attempts to destabilize the Wilson Government of 1974 to 1976.  When I was involved in a previous incarnation of political activity, I read the magazine “Borderlands” which looked at the role the same services role in their infiltration of the Radicals, the Left and the Green movement.There is an area where the secret state intersects with our paranoia and our fears.  The Left and all critical views tends to attract to it a higher proportion of people who are suspicious, egotistical and obsessive.  Of course this proportion is small but nevertheless there.  Just recently I read a psychotherapy article about that if you compare one hundred political activists with 100 non political activists the non activists are significantly less neurotic.  Anthony Starr’s book the Political Psyche is some rich read indeed……but still there is no harm in a speculative flow of consciousness…….

Many of you will remember the series the Edge of Darkness from the 80s.  I leave the rest to you…it may all be the heat in the dog days of July…but please consider the following.  First off the timing of Rhadioactive Rhun’s challenge for Plaids leadership is almost chilling.  On 12 June he gave an interview in which he explicitly ruled out challenging Leanne Wood for the leadership
Leanne Wood published a list of pledges on her website including a very strongly worded pledge against nuclear power and Wylfa B.  
Within days of Leanne’s pledge rumors start to circulate Rhun Radioactive is reconsidering his position – and a couple of weeks later he formally challenges her.  How his sudden about turn hasn’t been linked in the welsh media to Leanne’s strongly worded pledge on nuclear power is mystifying.  It’s clear those behind Wylfa B (Horizon nuclear power and the British government) decided Leanne had to be challenged after this pledge.  Which begs the question is Rhun the Assembly member for Ynys Mon or for Horizon nuclear power? Think we know the answer to that.
 A couple of years ago Rhun – and the local Labour MP Albert Owen accepted an all-expenses paid trip to japan from Horizon’s parent company Hitachi to see their nuclear facilities there https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-north-west-wales-27954336.
But one ‘facility’ they own they did not show him that the nuclear reactor at Fukushima, which split open contaminating the ocean, killing lots of fish and a few people and forcing hundreds of thousands of people to flee their homes
A couple of months ago the Nuclear industry`s  PR machine announced to much fanfare that the new director of Horizon’s operations at Wylfa B would be a certain Gwen Parry-Jones OBE https://www.niauk.org/media-centre/member-news/new-leadership-boost-horizon/  The release mentions her long track record in the nuclear industry – including stints in America surprise surprise – and mentions she was the station director of Heysham nuclear power station in Lancashire. What it doesn’t mention is that Heysham had to be shut down THREE times while she was director due to faults being found  https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-lancashire-31016226 
A grim track record which doesn’t inspire much confidence in her with regards to how safe Wylfa B will be. Of course despite all the pro nuclear propaganda appearing in the British and Welsh media about Wylfa B there’s no mention of where in Wales the poisonous waste it will produce will be buried. In fact, no one has a clue where it will be dumped because not a single local authority in Wales has said they will accept any of Wylfa B radioactive waste.
Furthermore, if Wylfa B goes ahead I want you to imagine an independent Wales before Wylfa B is decommissioned in 35 years’ time – it would bankrupt Wales. The cost of cleaning up decommissioned nuclear power stations is enormous, the cost of cleaning up Sellafield is 70 BILLION POUNDS.  There’s no way any future Welsh state could afford to pay that.  So if Wylfa B goes ahead people can probably say goodbye to Wales ever becoming independent, which makes the strong support for Wylfa B from Plaid’s Rhun Ap Iorwerth all the more bizarre.
Finally, perhaps the key to all of this – to Wylfa B, to the actions of Nuclear lackeys like Rhun and others is that the UK government has pledged to underwrite Wylfa B to the tune of an estimated 15 billion pounds.  A massive figure and which shows a) how desperate certain groups are that Wylfa B goes ahead and b) that without a massive public subsidy.
Wylfa B is completely untenable.  Clearly these dark forces – the dark forces which make up the secret state – need to be assured of a supply of Plutonium for nuclear warheads and we all know that they get plutonium from the production process of nuclear reactors.  Now of course no one in the media talks about this – Wylfa B has to go ahead and any potential threats to it as Leanne Wood clearly is and has to be dealt with.  And at the moment is trying to topple her or at least seriously weaken her as Plaid Leader
But it’s clear powerful and shadowy forces are moving against Leanne Wood, powerful and shadowy forces she sadly seems unaware of to judge by her recent call to her supporters for a ‘positive campaign’ and not to attack her leadership rivals.  How naive she is.  Like Caesar she is surrounded by treachery and enemies but she sadly seems unaware or perhaps now with a month to go is waking up to the threat.
An obvious apologist of the nuclear power industry has been deployed to try and topple her and so has Adam Price who had disappeared from politics for six years to study at an elite American university and who despite trying to get a US President charged with war crimes never seems to have any difficulty getting in and out of the United States.  He even launched his campaign against Leanne Wood from America where he’s been on a lengthy holiday.  Of course her challengers will have no difficulty in getting lots of coverage in a compliant media for their campaigns – as we know the media will be used by the secret state to deal with anyone perceived to be a threat to the status quo and Leanne Wood certainly is a threat to the secret state and to the nuclear power and nuclear weapons lobby.
I am indebted for much of this to the help of Welsh anti-nuclear activists in putting together the article,
It is indeed shocking that Westminster should be able to decide that a monstrous nuclear power station is going to be placed in in Wales – all energy matters should be devolved to the Welsh Assembly.  I suggest you read in detail the following piece before you rush to welcome Nuclear Power. Chris Busby is not everyone’s cup of tea but his research on cancer rates should be looked at seriously…Here is the link for his fascinating article…it’s well worth a read
 Adam “Blairâ€� Price and his dreams of a “Newâ€� Plaid.
Before I conclude these lengthy speculations I must make some final observations on young Adam Adam makes much of asking the question why Plaid has not followed the rise of the SNP. I would respectively remind him that the SNP grew exponentially because they came at the pre-Corbyn Scottish Labour from the Left and not the right. He would be foolish to forget this fact. It is quite clear that the right in Wales is a crowded field. Plaid is staring in the abyss if it moves to the right. As Welsh Labour moves to the Left and Momentum grows he might reflect upon he risk of a severe and destructive strategic mistake.

Interestingly enough Adam will not rule out cooperation with the Tory Party in Wales. The Tory party nearly destroyed Wales nearly forty years ago. It declared war on miners and steel workers conquering Wales and leaving it a desert. It is clear why Leanne Wood in an email to supporters in Plaid argued the following. She stated  

“My answer is this – as long as I am Leader of Plaid Cymru, we will not sign a deal that allows Conservatives to play any part in the Welsh government. 

I give this answer for several reasons.
First, any talk of coalition with Tories, or even leaving the door open to that idea, would undermine our election chances. All the available evidence from polling and voter attitudes in Wales points to a deep distrust by Plaid Cymru supporters and our potential supporters of Tory involvement in our national institutions. 

We only have to look at the fate of the Liberal Democrats following their coalition with the Tories to know that the damage can be overwhelming and the effects long-lasting. I want to lead Plaid Cymru to success, not reduce us to a rump.
Second, even if the electoral math’s suggested that a Tory / Plaid coalition was feasible, the policy differences would not provide for a stable government. Would a Plaid Cymru Government have to agree to “right-to-buy� legislation, depriving families of social housing? Would the Tories insist on cutting income tax, putting even more pressure on stretched services after a decade of austerity? How would such a government deal with the unexpected, like the renaming of the second Severn crossing? That’s not to mention Brexit and utterings by their former Welsh leader straight after the Brexit referendum about people wanting to get rid of our assembly. This is not a future that I want for Plaid Cymru and it is not, I believe, what our supporters want either.

Third, even our politicians talking about the possibility of having Tories in the Welsh government with Plaid Cymru benefits both the Conservatives and Labour. Labour has for years told their supporters that we would do a deal with Tories to frighten them and prevent them from turning to Plaid. The fewer people believe them, the more they cry wolf. Imagine what the effect would be if we were to give credence to their claims.
It is no surprise that senior Tories have been talking up the idea of working with Plaid Cymru. They understand that, without Plaid Cymru, they have no route to government and therefore they will try to use us to become a legitimate party of government.
Some argue that we should keep the possibility of dealing with the Tories on the table to get a better deal with Labour. There is no point doing that if a deal with Labour is not the aim. I am not seeking to do a deal with the Labour party following the next election.
 I was pleased to see the prominent Welsh Blog National Left make the simialr observations in the following link http://nationalleft.blogspot.com/2018/08/an-anti-labour-vote-is-not-good-for.htmlWhen Adam says the that the Left is still stuck in 1983 he should remember the experience of Wales. He should also reflect on the rise of the Corbynista Labour Party to a membership of over 800,000. He should reflect on European parties in places like Portugal coming power and introducing Corbynista economics in the process. He should reflect on the rise of Podemos and Syriza in Greece. When he courts the populism of the Five Star in Movement from Italy he should consider the experience of the Roma and migrants under this tide of “populismâ€�. He may also reflect upon the following link…..


What’s in a name?

Writing down a name makes all the difference

Journalists are always told ‘names make news’.

This is certainly true with the call by Plaid Cymru leadership contender Adam Price that the name of his party should be changed to the ‘New Wales Party’.

It has attracted a huge number of headlines in the Welsh media and beyond

Unfortunately the extreme right got there first and Mr Price could have made a rather hapless freudian slip.

No lessons should be learnt from Oswald Mosley’s ‘New Party’

In 1931 Oswald Mosley resigned from the Labour Party to set up his own â€˜New Party’ the following day.

It received £50,000 in funding from Lord Nuffield and launched a magazine called Action.

A candidate for Mosley’s New Party stood against Labour in the 1931 General Election in Merthyr Tydfil where he (and it) attracted 10,834 votes, as well as securing a sizeable share at 30.6 per cent.

The aim of Mr Price’s new party would be to attract votes too, also, in all likelihood, in the South Wales valleys.

This and a ‘radical Welsh populism’ are key for Mr Price.

Adam Price wants to be radical and popular

He said: “We need to create a radical Welsh populism which turns the old Welsh story – a country mistreated, a people let down – into a new Welsh story of optimism and hope�,

and added that the proposed name would signal that Plaid Cymru â€œis the party of Wales’ futureâ€�.

Mosley had said an almost identical thing when he created his own â€˜New Party’ – he predicted a golden future for Britain if voters opted for his new organisation.

Will there be a new paper for Adam Price’s party?

Yet the future for the New Party was not golden.

Gradually, it became more authoritarian, with parts of it (notably its youth movement) adopting overtly fascist thinking.

In 1932 Mosley united most of the various fascist organisations in the UK, forming the British Union of Fascists, into which the New Party subsumed itself.

Mr Price said Plaid Cymru (or as he wants to call it the New Wales Party) needed to learn from “popular outsider movementsâ€� ranging from Labour under Jeremy Corbyn to Donald Trump’s election as US President, in order to capture the imagination of people outside the party’s core support of “Welsh-identifying, left-of-centre votersâ€�.
Some historical contexts and allusions for Thermidor 2018

Thermidor (French pronunciation: â€‹[tÉ›Ê�midÉ”Ê�]) was the eleventh month in the French Republican Calendar. The month was named after the French word thermal which comes from the Greek word “thermos” which means heat.
Thermidor was the second month of the summer quarter (mois d’été). It started July 19 or 20. It ended August 17 or 18. It follows the Messidor and precedes the Fructidor. During Year 2, it was sometimes called Fervidor.
Because of the Thermidorian reaction—9 Thermidor Year II—the overthrow of revolutionary radical Maximilien Robespierre and his followers in that month, the word “Thermidor” has come to mean a retreat from more radical goals and strategies during a revolution, especially when caused by a replacement of leading personalities.

This has been a very long piece. I am off on holiday shortyly. So here are explanations of the subtle and not so subtle references. I wish to avoid a Joycean problem of interpretation and allegory. What you think or interpret is entirely up to you. I could not possibly comment..it`s really up to you who you might think the “gilded youths� may be…..

Thermidorian Reaction, in the French Revolution, the parliamentary revolt initiated on 9 Thermidor, year II (July 27, 1794), which resulted in the fall of Maximilien Robespierre and the collapse of revolutionary fervour and the Reign of Terror in France.

By June 1794 France had become fully weary of the mounting executions (1,300 in June alone), and Paris was alive with rumours of plots against Robespierre, member of the ruling Committee of Public Safety and leading advocate of the Terror.  On 8 Thermidor (July 26) he gave a speech full of appeals and threats.  The next day, the deputies in the National Convention shouted him down and decreed his arrest.  He was arrested at the Hôtel de Ville, along with his brother Augustin, François Hanriot, Georges Couthon, and Louis de Saint-Just.  The same guillotine that on 9 Thermidor executed 45 anti-Robespierrists executed, in the following three days, 104 Robespierrists, inaugurating a brief “White Terrorâ€� against Jacobins throughout France.

The coup was primarily a reassertion of the rights of the National Convention against the Committee of Public Safety and of the nation against the Paris Commune.  It was followed by the disarming of the committee, the emptying of the prisons, and the purging of Jacobin clubs.  Social and political life became freer, more extravagant, and more personally corrupt.  There was a splurge of fashion and a conspicuous consumption of bourgeois wealth, while the poor suffered from harsh economic conditions.
The Gilded Youths
An historical account of the Thermidorian Reaction following the fall of Robespierre in July of 1794. The book provides an examination of the 36,000 files of the revolutionary police to reconstruct events on the streets as they parallelled those in the Assembly, and provides a picture of social and political life in Paris at the time.  He describes how the sans-culottes, the lower-class radicals who had been the mainspring and vanguard of the French Revolution, were crushed, and analyzes the role played by the Thermidorian reaction.